Source” Understanding Nutrition Thirteenth Edition by Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes
- Emphasizes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains. And fat – free and low – fat milk products.
- Incudes lean meats, poultry, seafood, legumes, eggs, seeds, and nuts.
- Is low in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol. Salt (sodium), and added sugars.
- Stays within your daily energy needs for your recommended body weight.
Balancing kcalories to manage weight
- Prevent and/or reduce overweight and obesity through improved eating and physical activity behaviors (current recommendations advise 200 to 300 minutes of moderately intense physical activity a week in addition to activities of daily life. People who combine diet and exercise typically lose more fat, retain more muscle, and regain less weight then those who only follow a weight-loss diet.)
- Weight – loss Strategies
|· To maintain weight, consume foods and drinks to meet, not exceed, kcalorie needs. To lose weight, energy out should exceed energy in by about 500 kcalories/day||· Limit screen time|
|· Emphasize foods with a low energy density and a high nutrient density; make legumes, whole grains, vegetables, and fruits central to your diet plan.||· Increase physical activity|
|· Eat slowly||· Choose moderate – or vigorous – intensity physical activities|
|· Drink water before you eat and while you eat; drink plenty of water throughout the day.||· Avoid inactivity, some physical activity is better than none.|
|· Track food and kcalorie intake.||· Slowly build up the amount of physical activity you choose.|
|· Plan ahead to make better food choices.|
|· Limit kcalorie intake from solid fats and added sugars.|
|· Reduce portions, especially of high- kcalorie foods|
|· Cook and eat more meals at home, instead of eating out. When eating out, think about choosing healthy options.|
- Control total kcalorie intake to manage body weight. For people who are overweight or obese, this will mean consuming fewer kcalories from foods and beverages. (1g of carbohydrate = 4 kcal, 1g fat = 9 kcal, 1g protein = 4 kcal, 1g alcohol = 7 kcal) To know where to start find out your BMR and your RMR find a average kcal consuming number take your weight end of every week next add or subtract kcal as needed for your goal weather if it’s to gain weight or loss it, and this is what you call portion control.
- Increase physical activity and reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors( ACSM Guidelines for physical fitness)
|· Type of Activity||· Aerobic activity that uses large muscle groups and can be maintained continuously||· Resistance activity that is performed at a controlled speed and through a full range of motion||· Stretching activity that uses the major muscle groups|
|· Frequency||· 5 to 7 days per week||· 2 to 3 nonconsecutive days per week||· 2 to 7 days per week|
|· Intensity||· Moderate (equivalent to walking at a pace of 3 to 4 miles per hour)||· Enough to enhance muscle strength and improve body composition||· Enough to feel tightness or slight discomfort|
|· Duration||· At least 30 minutes per day||· 2 to 4 sets of 8 to 12 repetitions involving each major muscle group||· 2 to 4 repetitions of 15 to 30 seconds per muscle group|
|· Examples||· Running, cycling, dancing, swimming, inline skating, rowing, power walking, cross-country skiing, kickboxing, water aerobics, jumping rope; sports activities such as basketball, soccer, racquetball, tennis, volleyball||· Pull-ups, push-ups, sit-ups, weight lifting, pilates||· Yoga|
Tips; make sure in your activities in each work out session has a warm-up and a cool down, be active all week not just on the weekend, challenge yourself in your strength and endurance a few times each week rather than every time you work out, Work out wisely do not start with activities so damaging that pain stops you within a few days, Pay attention to body signals: symptoms such as abnormal heartbeat, dizziness, lightheadedness, cold sweet, confusion, or pain or pressure in the middle of the chest, teeth, jaw, neck, or arm demand immediate medical attention.
- Maintain appropriate kcalorie balance during each stage of life- childhood, adolescence, adulthood, pregnancy and breastfeeding, and older age. ( just remember as your body changes so does your nutrition as well as everything else)
Foods and food components to Reduce
- Reduce daily sodium intake to less than 2300 milligrams and further reduce intake to 1500 milligrams among people who are 51 and older and those of any age who are African American or have hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease. ( tips on cutting salt “sodium” – (select fresh, unprocessed foods), (cook with little or no added salt, prepare foods with sodium-free spices such as basil- bay leaves- curry- garlic- ginger- mint- oregano- pepper- rosemary- and thyme; lemon juice; vinegar; or wine), (Add little or no salt at the table; taste foods before adding salt.), (Read labels with your eye open for sodium), ( select low-salt or salt free products when available),
(Some food examples that can be used sparingly)
|Foods prepared in brine, such as pickles, olives, and sauerkraut.|
|Salty or smoked meats, such as bologna, corned or chipped beef, bacon, frankfurters, ham, lunchmeats, salt pork, sausage, and smoked tongue.|
|Salty or smokes fish, such as anchovies, caviar, salted and dried cod, herring, sardines, and smoked salmon.|
|Snack items such as potato chips, pretzels, salted popcorn, salted nuts, and cracker.|
|Condiments such as bouillon cubes; seasoned salts; MSG; soy. Teriyaki, Worcestershire, and barbeque sauces; prepared horseradish, ketchup, and mustard.|
|Cheeses, especially processed types.|
|Canned and instant soups|
- Consume less than 10 percent of kcalories from saturated fatty acids by replacing them with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid.
Major sources of unsaturated fats:
|Monounsaturated Fats||Polyunsaturated Fats||Major sources of omega-3 fats;|
|Olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, safflower oil||Vegetable oils (sesame, soy, corn, sunflower)||Vegetable oils (canola, soybean, flaxseed)|
|Avocados||Nuts and seeds||Walnuts, flaxseeds|
|Fatty fish (mackerel, salmon, sardines|
The chart blow are portion sizes that have been adjusted so that each of these foods provided approximately 100 kcalories, Notice that for a similar number of kcalories and grams of fat, the second choices offer less saturated fat and more unsaturated fat.
Replacing saturated Fat with Unsaturated Fats
|Saturate Fat (g)||Unsaturated Fat (g)||Total Fats (g)|
|Butter (1 tbs)||7||4||11|
|Bacon (2 slices)||3||6||9|
|Potato chips (10 chips)||2||5||7|
|Cheeses ( 1 Slices)||4||4||8|
|Steak (1 1/2 oz)||2||3||5|
Try to replace with these food
|Saturate Fat (g)||Unsaturated Fat (g)||Total Fats (g)|
|Olive oil (1 tbs)||2||9||11|
|Sunflower seeds (2 tbs)||1||7||8|
|Mixed nuts (2 tbs)||1||8||9|
|Avocado (6 slices)||2||8||10|
- Consume less than 300 milligrams per day of dietary cholesterol.
- Keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible by limiting foods that contain synthetic sources of trans fat, such as partially hydrogen (Transfats can be found in many foods – including fried foods like doughnuts, and baked goods including cakes, pie crusts, biscuits, frozen pizza, cookies, crackers, and stick margarines and other spreads. You can determine the amount of trans fats in a particular packaged food by looking at the Nutrition Facts panel. However, products can be listed as “0 grams of trans fats” if they contain 0 grams to less than 0.5 grams of trans fat per serving. You can also spot trans fats by reading ingredient lists and looking for the ingredients referred to as “partially hydrogenated oils.”)
- Reduce the intake of kcalories from solid fats and added sugars.( Fat provides energy and is a carrier of important nutrients such as vitamins A, D, E, and K and carotenoids. But fat can impact the health of our hearts and arteries in a positive or negative way, depending on the types of fat we eat. Experts recommend getting between 20 and 35 percent of calories from total fat, with most fats coming from sources of “good” fat, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.)
- Limit the consumption of foods that contain refined grains, especially refined grain foods that contain solid fats. Added sugars, and sodium.
- If alcohol is consumed it should be consumed in moderation – up to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men.
Food and nutrients to increase
- Increase vegetable and fruit intake
- Eat a variety of vegetable, especially dark – green and red orange vegetable and beans and peas.
- Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains, Increase whole – grain intake by replacing refined grains with whole grains.
- Increase intake of fat free or low fat milk and milk produce, such as milk, yogurt, cheese, or fortified soy beverages.
- Choose a variety of protein foods, which include seafood, lean meat and poultry, eggs, beans and peas, soy products, and unsalted nuts and seeds.
- Increase the amount and variety of seafood consumed by choosing seafood in place pf meat and poultry.
- Replace protein foods that are higher in solid fats with choices that are lower in solid fats and kcalories and/or are sources of oils.
- Use oils to replace solid fats where possible
- Choose foods that provide more potassium, dietary fiber, calcium, and vitamin D, which are nutrients of concern in American diets. These foods include vegetable, fruits, whole grains, and milk and milk produces.
Building Healthy Eating Patterns
- Select an eating pattern that meets nutrient needs over time at an appropriate kcalorie level.
- Account for all foods and beverages consumed and assess how they fit within a total healthy eating pattern.
- Follow food safety recommendations when preparing and eating foods to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses.
- http://www.health.harvard.edu/ or http://www.eatright.org these are two of many good websites to check out